Singapore is recognized as a pacesetter in blockchain and cryptocurrency due to its unfailingly supportive regulatory environment. Over the last few years, Singapore has seen a tremendous rise in the number of blockchain projects that have been registered within its borders.

To keep up with the evolving world of digital tokens, the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) published a guide on the e-Tax that details how digital token transactions including ICOs, IEOS and STOs shall be taxed. These came a few months after Singapore released its new regulations for enterprises offering payment services.

The guide focuses on the taxation of three types of digital tokens. These include security tokens, utility tokens and payment tokens (tokens used as payment options). The guide also elaborates on the taxation of other tokens that are distributed through unconventional means like hard forks and airdrops.

Payment tokens

According to the e-Tax guide, all transactions done using payment tokens shall be considered to be in the form of barter trade. Therefore, the recipients of the tokens shall be taxed depending on the value of the underlying goods or services.

Nonetheless, purchasing a payment token is not taxable. However, the returns from the disposal of the token are taxable if the process involved is a trading activity.

Payment tokens miners shall also be taxed if the mining intends to make profits.

Payment tokens distributed via hard forks and airdrops are not taxable if they are freely given out.

Utility tokens

According to the e-Tax guide, utility token transactions are not taxable since they are mainly acquired to enable the users to acquire future services within a specific blockchain network.

Security tokens

According to the e-Tax guide, security tokens are regarded as a form of equity or debt since they give owners an implied degree of control or equity to a certain asset or project. As such, the taxation of the returns gotten from security tokens depends on the type of the return. The types in consideration here are interests and dividends.

ICOs and STOs taxation

According to the IRAS, the proceeds of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) and Security Token Offerings (STOs) shall be taxed depending on the functions and rights of the used token.

If the issued token is a utility token, the sale shall be considered to be in the form of revenue and is therefore taxable. This is because the utility token is an obligation for the issuer to provide a service or good in the future that shall be bought or paid for using this token.

On the other hand, the issuance of security tokens shall not be taxed since the proceeds parallel the proceeds obtained from issuance of equities or debts, which is normally capital in nature. However, as mentioned above, withholding tax obligation and the general income tax shall apply to the interest and dividends paid to the owners of the token.

Tokens set aside for founders in ICOs and STOs

In most cases, startups set aside some tokens for the founders. In this case, if the tokens are used to pay or compensate the founders, they are regarded as revenue and the founder that receives them shall be taxed. However, if the tokens are not issued as a form of payment, they are regarded as a capital asset of the founder.

What a taxpayer dealing with digital tokens in Singapore should do

IRAS instructs taxpayers in Singapore that deal with digital tokens to keep proper records of the digital token transactions so that it can be simple to file the returns.

The records should have the following:

  • Transaction date.
  • The number of tokens sold or received.
  • Value of the digital token at the time of transaction.
  • The used exchange rate.
  • Purpose of the transaction.
  • Details of the customers/suppliers in case it was a buy or sell transaction.
  • Details of the ICO or STO.
  • Invoices or Receipts of the expenses incurred within the business.

Blockchain and ICO can best be explained as eccentric. Therefore, you need to look for eccentric ways of getting people to know about your ICO token sale. And one of the unorthodox methods of spreading the word is by using bounty programs.

Bounty programs for ICOs

Bounty programs were initially introduced for gamers where they could get rewarded for reaching a certain level in a game. Later, the idea was adopted by blockchain developers and it is now commonly used in finding loopholes in blockchain programs; and they have turned out to be such great avenues for developers to identify weak points in their programs for correction to prevent future hacking.

In our case, bounty programs for ICOs are programs in which people are rewarded for spreading the word. It is a great marketing strategy since the main theme in ICO marketing is getting the word about your ICO to as many people as possible since the many the people the more the probability of finding interested investors.

As an ICO owner, you simply reward people according to how much they help in spreading the word about your ICO. You can decide to reward them in fiat currency or crypto tokens being used in the ICO.

There are normally two types of ICO bounty programs which are very specific to the tasks they are oriented for. These are:

1.    The Pre-ICO bounty

Just as the name suggests, the purpose of this bounty is to drum up as much support as possible for the upcoming ICO. It basically sensitizes people that there is an upcoming ICO they could be ready to invest in.

Some of the activities that individuals can involve in in the pre-ICO bounty programs include but not limited to:

  • Social media campaigns: Social media has turned out to be a major tool when it comes to advertisement. Participant help by posting information about the upcoming blockchain project on popular social media platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. Other means are by participating in discussions in crypto communities through Reddit or Telegram.

The reward, in this case, is normally based on how much the participant has engaged the general population.

  • Creating content: In addition to the whitepaper, you may still require bloggers to produce shorter and captivating articles to attract people since not all people find it interesting to go through whitepapers since they appear to be too technical.

The bloggers could also help in producing newsletters and even translate the content into different dialects for different communities around the world to understand.

Also, the reward is determined by how much the participant is able to engage the general crowd.

  • Bounties for signatures: These are programs where the ICO owner provides a code embedded signature. Then the participants post this signature and the more they rank the more they get. A good example of this bounty is the Bitcointalk signature bounties.

2.    Post-ICO Bounty

The purpose of this bounty is to gather as much feedback as possible and also keep on indicating the progress in accordance with the roadmap. This bounty programs normally involve:

  • Bounties to translate: the participants compete in translating the key documents into various languages. Key among the documents is the whitepaper and the website.
  • Bounties for reporting bugs: This is normally done to help in identifying and fixing any mistakes that may be present in the blockchain program.